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Recommended dietary allowance (RDA): The level of dietary intake of essential nutrients considered to be sufficient to meet the minimum nutritional needs of most healthy individuals.
Relaxation Techniques: A natural process that can be learned by anyone to reverse the effects of stress on the body's physiology. Methods used to lessen tension, reduce anxiety, and manage pain.
Repetitions or "Reps": Refers to a single full execution of an exercise movement. For example, one repetition of a push-up involves beginning with your arms straight, lowering your body to the floor and returning to the starting position. The number of repetitions you perform of a particular exercise will determine the type of benefit to your muscles. Higher weights with lower repetitions will increase strength. Lower weights with higher repetitions will increase endurance.
Routine: This term encompasses virtually every aspect of what you do in an exercise session, including: the exercises, reps and sets you do of strength training, aerobic conditioning, the order in which you perform the exercises, the length of time spent. To keep workouts interesting, many people change their routine from time to time. Your routine is also referred to as your "program" or your "workout."
Rheumatoid Arthritis: An inflammatory disease that affects the facet joints in the spine as well as other joints in the body including the hands, elbows, shoulders, fingers and toes.
Ruptured Disk: Herniated disk where material from the disk pushes through the outer lining of the disk.
Satiety: A mechanism to tell the body that it has had enough food. The most important satiety compounds are the hormone leptin and the fatty acid oleylethanolamine (OEA).
Saturated fat: A fat that is solid at room temperature. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Saturated fat is found in high-fat dairy products (like cheese, whole milk, cream, butter, and regular ice cream), fatty fresh and processed meats, the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, lard, palm oil, and coconut oil. They have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
Sciatic nerve: The nerve that serves the legs and originates from several levels of the lower back. Formed by multiple nerve roots from the lumbar spine; the sciatic nerve sends signals down the leg to control muscles and up the leg to provide sensations.
Sciatica: An inflammation of the sciatic nerve usually marked by tenderness along the course of the nerve through the buttocks, thigh, and leg.
Scoliosis: An abnormal curve of the spine.
Sedentary: A person who engages in little to no leisure-time physical activity.
Serotonin: A neurotransmitter in the brain that elevates mood and decreases appetite.
Set: A set is a group of repetitions that you perform without rest. For example, if you do ten repetitions of a bench press and then place the bar back on the rack and rest, you have just completed one set. For strength training, most people do three sets of a particular exercise, 10 - 15 repetitions in each set, and a one minute rest between each set.
Slipped Disk: Herniated disk where material from the disk pushes through the outer lining of the disk (see Disc Herniation).
Spina Bifida: A congenital defect of the spine in which the arches of the lower lumbar spine fail to form over the spinal cord, leaving the cord unprotected.
Spinal canal: The opening at the center of the spine through which the spinal cord runs.
Spinal cord: The root section of the central nervous system going down from the brain through the spinal column, where it divides into nerves.
Spinal column: The spine.
Spinal Fracture: Broken vertebrae in the spine.
Spinal cord: The column of nerve tissue that runs from the brain to the lower back.
Spinal fusion: A process in which the disc and cartilage is removed from between the vertebrae, and bone grafts (often harvested from the pelvis) are placed between or alongside the vertebrae to join the bones together.
Spinal stenosis: A narrowing of the spinal canal, that compresses the spinal cord and/or the nerve roots, cutting off their impulses to the muscles of the leg.
Spondyloarthopathy: A group of disorders that causes inflammatory arthritis of the spine.
Spondylitis: Inflammation of the spine generally caused by an infection.
Spondylolisthesis: A spinal abnormality in which there is an anterior displacement of a vertebra on the one below, often resuting in back pain.
Starvation metabolism: The slowing of the basal energy expenditure caused by chronic underfeeding, leading to a reduction in the rate at which the body burns calories and an increase in the rate at which the body attempts to store fat.
Stenosis: Narrowing of a portion of the spinal canal, usually because of bony overgrowth (see Spinal Stenosis).
Strength training: This helps you tone muscles and lose fat. It also helps to keep your bones keep your bones strong-which helps you avoid fractures as your bones weaken with age.
Subluxation: A misalignment in the bony structures of the spine. Subluxations can create pressure or irritation on the various nerves in your spine, and can cause a wide variety of symptoms throughout your body, such as localized pain, soreness, irregularity, and weakness. When pressure is applied on a nerve in your spine, the nerve energy is interrupted, and sometimes this can profoundly affect the function of other systems or organs in your body.
Tendon: White fibrous bands of tissue that attach muscle to bone.
Tennis elbow: Also known as lateral epicondylitis, tennis elbow is pain on the lateral, or outside part of the elbow, on or near the bony protrusion. It is usually caused by the overuse of the wrist extensor muscles, which leads to the inflammation of the tendon attachment.
Therapeutic massage: A form of massage that involves the manipulation of the soft tissues of the body to decrease muscle spasm, pain and to improve movement.
Thoracic Spine: Twelve vertebrae above the lumbar spine and below the cervical spine.
Thyroid hormone: A hormone released by the thyroid gland that stimulates metabolism and helps to regulate a range of biochemical processes in the body.
Tolerance: Decreasing effect of a drug with the same dose or the need to increase the dose to maintain the same effect.
Tranquilizer: A drug used to treat anxiety.
Trigger Point Therapy: The application of pressure on tender trigger points in the muscles to relieve pain and tension.
Trigger Points: A generally small area of a muscle that is tightly knotted and in spasm causing referred pain.
Underwater weighing: A research method for estimating body fat. A person is placed in a tank, underwater, and weighed. By comparing weight underwater with weight on land, one can get a very good measure of body fat.
Unsaturated fat: A fat that is liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats include polyunsaturated fats, and monounsaturated fats. Sources of unsaturated fats include most nuts, olives, avocados, and fatty fish such as salmon.
Utrasound:High frequency inaudible sounds whose vibrations can be used for heating internal structures of the body.
Vertebrae: The 24 cylindrical segments of bone that make up the vertebral column.
Vertebral column: The Spine. The flexible structure that forms the "backbone" of the skeleton, arranged a straight line from the base of the skull to the tailbone; also called spine.
Vertebral subluxation complex: Another term for subluxation that is used in the chiropractic profession.
Vigorous-intensity physical activity: To be classified as vigorous-intensity, physical activity requires sustained, rhythmic movements of an intense enough level to elevate heart rate to 70% - 85% of maximum heart rate. Vigorous-intensity physical activity may be intense enough to represent a substantial challenge to an individual, resulting in a significant increase in heart rate and respiration.
Waist circumference: A measurement of the waist. Fat around the waist increases the risk of obesity-related health problems.
Weight control: Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight by eating well and getting regular physical activity.
Weight-cycle: Losing and gaining weight over and over again. Commonly called "yo-yo" dieting. With each cycle, there is a worsening of the percentage of body fat due to a loss of lean muscle tissue.
Whiplash: An injury to the cervical spine that occurs from rapid hyper-flexion, hyper-extension and compression movements, such as in an automobile accident.
Wrist circumference: A measurement of the wrist at its thinnest point, just proximal to the hand, that is used to estimate the size of an individual's overall skeletal structure.
X-Ray: A diagnostic imaging method that exposes photographic films with radiation passed through the body. It is most useful in diagnosing fractures, dislocations, abnormal positioning or other structural problems in bone.
Yoga: A gentle exercise system consisting of numerous stretching movements that is extremely helpful in healing.
Zebra: is a medical term for a suprising diagnosis. The term derived from the aphorism "When you hear hoofbeats behind you, don't expect to see a zebra", which was coined in a slightly modified form in the late 1940s by Dr. Theodore Woodward.
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