Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes mellitus that can occur when a woman is pregnant. In the second half of her pregnancy, a woman may have glucose (sugar) in her blood at a higher than normal level. In about 95 percent of cases, blood sugar returns to normal after the pregnancy is over. Women who develop gestational diabetes, however, are at risk for developing Type II diabetes later in life.
Ghrelin: A hormone released from the stomach and the small intestine that creates the sensation of hunger.
Glucagon: A hormone released from the pancreas that elevates blood sugar by stimulating the release of glucose stores in the liver and muscle.
Glucose: A building block for most carbohydrates. Digestion causes carbohydrates to break down into glucose. After digestion, glucose is carried in the blood and goes to body cells where it is used for energy or stored.
Glycemic index: A measure of a food's ability to raise the body's blood glucose level. Foods that have a low glycemic index do not raise blood glucose levels to nearly the extent of high glycemic index foods.
Golfer's Elbow: A type of elbow pain that originates near the inside part of the bony protrusion. This type of pain is also caused by a tear or rupture in the tendon supporting the elbow bone.
Healthy weight: Compared to overweight or obese, a body weight that is less likely to be linked with any weight-related health problems such as Type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or others. A person with a body fat percentage between 18% - 22% (depending on age) are considered to be at a healthy weight.
Heat Therapy: A form of therapy often used in patients who have chronic, or long-lasting pain. Heat therapy can involve many kinds of methods, from simple heating pads, wraps, and warm gel packs, to sophisticated techniques such as therapeutic ultrasound. While ice therapy is used to reduce swelling, heat therapy is used to relax the muscles and increase circulation. Both kinds of therapy help reduce pain.
Herniated Disc: A disc that protrudes from its normal position between two vertebrae, due to an injury to the annulus; frequently associated with the nucleus of the disc oozing out of the center of the disk.
High blood pressure: See Hypertension.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL): A form of cholesterol that circulates in the blood. Commonly called "good" cholesterol. High HDL lowers the risk of heart disease. An HDL of 60 mg/dl or greater is considered high and is protective against heart disease. An HDL less than 40 mg/dl is considered low and increases the risk for developing heart disease.
Hip circumference: A measurement of the hips, including the widest portion of the buttocks, used in conjunction with the waist circumference, body weight and percent body fat to calculate the body composition score.
Hypertension: a resting blood pressure is greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg. Hypertension is associated with an increasee risk of heart disease and stroke.
Hypothalamus: A small area of the brain that is a main control center for regulating eating and sleeping behavior in humans. It has binding sites for several hormones including ghrelin and leptin.
Ice Massage: A form of therapy involving the application of ice to treat many kinds of injuries, including those associated with back or neck pain. Ice causes the veins in the affected tissue area to constrict. This reduces the flow of blood while acting as kind of anesthetic to numb the pain. But when the ice is removed, the veins compensate by opening large, allowing a large volume of blood to rush to the affected area. The blood brings with it important chemicals that aid in the healing process.
Instrument Adjustment: A form of chiropractic adjustment using a spring-loaded device called an Activator.
Interferential Current (IFC): A form of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy in which high-frequency electrical impulses are introduced deep into the tissues near the center of the pain.
Ideal body weight: The weight that your body would be if you had a 20% body fat. Calculated by multiplying your current lean body mass by 1.2.
Imagery: A method of pain relief that uses mental images produced by memory or imagination.
Insulin: A hormone in the body that helps move glucose from the blood to muscles and other tissues. Insulin controls blood sugar levels.
Inflammation: A pathologic process associated with redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. This process destroys tissues but is also associated with the repair and healing of body structures.
Irritable bowel syndrome: is characterized by a combination of abdominal pain and altered bowel function.