A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Narrative: A written report by the doctor that includes a patients health history, a description of the patients complaint(s), examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.Narcotic: Pain relieving drug related in action and structure to the opiates. A powerful pain-relieving drug associated with potential to cause significant alteration of mood and dependence following repeated administration.Neural Canal: The opening in the spine through which the spinal cord passes.
Nerve: The body's communication system; nerves carry messages back and forth between the brain and all body parts.
Nerve Block: Pain relief method in which an anesthetic is injected into a nerve.
Nerve roots: Nerve projections from the spinal cord.
Neurologist: A physician who specializes in treating diseases of the nervous system.Neurological: Pertaining to the nervous system.
Neuropeptide Y: Is the key hunger transmitter in the brain. It signals the hypothalamus to eat. The action of neuropeptide Y is the opposite of that of leptin.
Neurosurgeon: A physician who specializes in surgery on the brain, nerves, and spinal cord.
Neurotransmitter: A chemical produced in the brain that sends messages between nerve cells.
Nucleus pulposus: Soft center of an intervertebral disc, made up of gel-like substance.
Nutrition: The relationship of food to the well-being of the body.
Nucleus pulposus: The gelatinous mass in the center of the intervertebral disc.
Obesity: Having an excessive amount of body fat. A person is considered obese if he or she has a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater.
Oleylethanolamine (OEA): A fatty acid found in some foods that sends a strong signal to the brain to stop eating. A powerful satiety factor and appetite suppressant.
Opiate: Pain-killing drug chemically related to opium; also called a narcotic (see Narcotics).
Orthopedic Surgeon: A doctor who specializes in diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Osteoarthritis: Also called "degenerative arthritis" mostly affecting middle-aged and elderly men and women. In some, osteoarthritis may affect the spine's facet joints, making it extremely painful to bend or twist. Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage to break down and away from the joints. Stripped of their protective material, the joints begin rubbing against each other, causing pain and impeding movement. This action further irritates the surrounding nerves. Advanced forms of spinal osteoarthritis lead to disc collapse and other problems.
Osteopathic Medicine: Particular attention is paid to muscles, joints, bones, and nerves through defined osteopathic manipulations.
Osteoporosis: A disease characterized by the loss of bone density, resulting in brittleness; most commonly affecting the spinal vertebrae, wrists and hips.
Osteophytes: Additional bone material, or overgrowths, that have been attributed to a wide variety of ailments. Also called bone spurs, osteophytes are manufactured by your body in response to a breakdown in existing bony structures. Sometimes, bone spurs can exert pressure on nerves, and this leads to pain.
Overload principle: Strength training term that refers to the phenomenon that muscles only grow in strength if they are pushed to near maximum effort - overloaded.
Overuse injuries: Injuries that occur during the course of everyday activities, such as housework or exercise. Symptoms may include pain, muscle spasms, and stiffness.
Overweight: Carrying too much body fat. (see Obesity)Pancreas: A gland that makes enzymes that help the body break down and use nutrients in food. It also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, releasing these into the bloodstream to help the body control blood sugar levels.
Pedometer: A small device that counts each step taken, total distance walked, or other related measures. It is usually worn on the waistband or in a pocket.
Piriformis syndrome: A condition caused by the sciatic nerve getting pinched as it exits the spinal column. (Sometimes, it can mimic the symptoms of sciatica.) The pinching is sometimes caused by muscles spasms. Piriformis syndrome sometimes causes pain along the back of the thigh to the knee, or loss of feeling in the soles of the feet.
Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the ligament running from the front of the heel bone through the bottom of the foot. Repetitive motions such as quick stops and starts during sports, or long distance running, have sometimes been associated with Plantar fasciitis.
Phenylethanolamine (PEA): A chemical found in chocolate that elevates mood. It is thought to be the compound that causes chocolate cravings.
Physical activity: Any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activity such as walking, running, basketball, or other sports. Physical activity may also include other daily activities such as household chores, yard work, walking the dog, etc.
Physical fitness: The measure of a person's ability to perform physical activities that require endurance, strength, or flexibility and is determined by a combination of regular activity and genetically inherited ability.
Physical Therapy: The health profession that treats pain in muscles, nerves, joints, and bones with exercise, electrical stimulation, hydrotherapy, and the use of massage, heat, cold, and electrical devices.
Polyunsaturated fat: A highly unsaturated fat that is liquid at room temperature. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fats are found in greatest amounts in corn, soybean, and safflower oils, and many types of nuts. They have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may still contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess.
Protein: One of the three nutrients that provides calories to the body. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including muscle, bone, skin, and blood. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts, and tofu.